| Canine Preparation with
C-Arm X-Ray System, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (1993).
(Blush) in Canine Myocardium During Two Consecutive Beats (4 Frames /
Beat). Visualization is with X-Rays and Iodine contrast agent
injection. Observe the repetitive dynamic nature of this process within
(top-to-bottom) and from beat-to-beat (left versus right column) (1993).
of Theoretical Dye
Accumulation (left) in the Canine Myocardium and Measured Dye
Accumulation (right). The theoretical model assumed typical
myocardial flow rate and myocardial mass (one compartment model), and a
smooth pulsatile rate of injection (lower tracing in left image).
Ordinates are in arbitrary (blush) units.
The right image is from six injections (95% confidence interval). Averages are computed for four phase-points during the cardiac cycle.
Non-zero start in measured values is due to the rapid filling of the coronary arteries, that is not included in the theoretical model.
Pre-Processed Image. The site of dye injection is blanked out
vessels have been delineated and "removed" (replacement of their
density with an estimate of the underlying myocardial blush
Cut-Away View (Anterior Oblique View) of Canine Myocardium. Note, that canine anatomy differs from human anatomy: the heart is pointed steeply towards the sternum. The red plane represent the back of the canine. The visible structure represents the left ventricle (the right ventricular blush is too faint to be visible). Left-to-right is the cranial-caudal direction.
Images are reconstructed at 4 phase points during the cardiac cycle, where 1.0 and 2.0 represent peak systolic contraction. Note, that the left-most column is exactly one beat earlier than the righ-most column.
Reconstruction is from 6 x-ray projective views at 30 degree increment. Observe increased blush-intensity in the area near the LAD artery (upper-left in each image) (1993-1994).